The Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention is an international instrument adopted by the International Labor Organization in 1989 and came into force in 1991. According to this convention, governments are responsible to develop, coordinate and protect the rights of indigenous and tribal people and to guarantee respect for their integrity. Indigenous and Tribal Peoples have the right to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms without discrimination. Special measures should be adopted to safeguard persons, institutions, property, labor, cultures and environment of the peoples concerned.
The social, cultural, religious and spiritual values and practices should be recognized and protected. While applying national laws, due regard should be given to the customs and customary laws of these peoples. They should be safeguarded against abuse of their rights and be able to take legal proceedings.
Adequate penalties should be established by law for unauthorized intrusion or use of lands of the peoples concerned and governments should take appropriate measures to prevent the same. Right to employment, equal pay for equal work, occupational safety and health, medical and social assistance, right to association, right to education and freedom for lawful trade union activities are some of the rights guaranteed to Indigenous and Tribal peoples through this convention.