The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda also known as ICTR was created in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council. The ICTR is located at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania.
The ICTR was mainly established to prosecute the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1994. ICTR also prosecutes Rwandan citizens responsible for genocide and other violations of international law committed in the territory of neighboring states in the same period.
Apart from the above stated, ICTR exercises jurisdiction over: genocide, crimes against humanity, violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II. The statute that governs the ICTR procedures is annexed to Security Council resolution 955. Article 14 of the statute stipulates the framework for functioning of the judicial system.
ICTR’s basic structure consists of the following:
- The Chambers
- Office of the Prosecution
- The Registry
- Witness and Victim Support Section
- Defense Counsel and Detention Management Section (DCDMS)
- Court Management Section(CMS)
- Procurement Section
The Chambers: There are three trial chambers and an appeals chamber. The Chambers are composed of judges elected by the General Assembly from a list submitted by the Security Council. The judges are elected for a term of four years. The judges can be re-elected.
Office of the Prosecution: Office of the prosecution consists of two divisions, the prosecution division and the appeals and legal advisory division (ALAD). The prosecution division is headed by a Chief of Prosecutions and ALAD is headed by a Chief of ALAD.
Registry: The Registry is headed by the Registrar. The Registry manages the overall administration of the ICTR. The Registrar assists the Chambers and the office of the prosecutor by providing judicial and legal support services.
Witness and Victim Support Section: This section provide support and protection services to all witness and victims summoned to testify in ICTR, and ensures timely availability of witnesses. The two units under this section are: one for prosecution witnesses and one for Defense witnesses.
Defense Counsel and Detention Management Section (DCDMS): DCDMS assigns competent defense counsels to detained indigent accused/suspects in ICTR. DCDMS ensures that the United Nations Detention Facility (UNDF) conforms to international standards. Functions of DCDMS includes: assignment and provision of legal assistance, activities related to the detention facility, and management of defense counsel issues.
Court Management Section (CMS): CMS assist the Chambers by providing administrative, judicial and logistic support to the Chambers’ proceedings. CMS is divided into four units and have 50 staff members. The four units are: the Judicial Proceedings Unit, the Appeals Unit, the Judicial Records & Archives Unit and the Court Reporters Unit.
Procurement Section: This section is in charge of procuring goods and services for the ICTR. Goods procured by this section includes: stationery supplies, other supplies, office equipment, furniture, office automation, radio and audio-visual equipment, photographic, vehicles, motor vehicles spare parts, generators parts. Contract services procured includes: rentals and leases, maintenance services, printing, insurance, packing, shipping, freight forwarding, travel, catering, courier services, security services, remodeling works. Procurement activities are conducted based on the guidelines provided by the Procurement Manual, and the United Nations Financial Regulations and Rules.